I am very happy to blog that, after years of hard work in the lab and the field, on Monday 24th August, isotope specialist and field team regular, Ellen McManus, successfully passed her PhD oral examination at the University of Aberdeen. Congratulations Ellen!
This event was cause for extra celebration as Ellen is the first doctoral student from the Nunalleq Project to complete her PhD. Her thesis entitled ‘Pre-contact ecology, subsistence and diet, on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta’ is an innovative study that integrates zooarchaeology with stable isotope techniques, to reconstruct past Alaskan foodwebs and to examine faunal palaeoecology at the site. The examiners had many complimentary things to say about Ellen’s work, particularly her research into the dogs found at Nunalleq and the ecosystem changes that have occurred over the centuries since the site was first inhabited.
The viva, which is the UK equivalent of a defense, lasted several hours, after which Ellen was awarded a pass with only minor corrections. Family, faculty and friends, including members of the Nunalleq team already back in Aberdeen (and those of us who never left!) were on hand to celebrate with Ellen – which included pizza and an animals-of-Nunalleq theme cake!
Congratulations again Dr. McManus! The question is: who’s next?!
The Nunalleq project features in a large article in this moths edisiton of the Archaeology Magazine
See a report from this summers excavation on Alaska Public Media. Featuring Dr. Rick Knecht
- Thanks to all the lab assistants who helped sort a bulk sample associated with a basket excavated on the last hour of the last day: Valerie
Who did I forget? Write me a comment and I will add your name to the list. Also write me if I misspelled your name.
What did the kids find?
We found salmon vertebrae and ribs and spines; we found salmonberry seeds and fish scales. Fish scales are very hard to spot…great job! One young analyst found a fish bone that is definitely NOT salmon– it is one that we will have to figure out with a comparative collection at the University of Oregon or University of Aberdeen.
Thank you for eagle-eyed assistance! We appreciate it.
Madonna L. Moss
With so many spectacular artifacts coming from the excavation of Nunalleq every day, it easy to gloss over the duller topics of excavation: what it is and why it has to be done a certain way. I love archaeological excavation and so it pains me to say this, but excavation is a destructive process. When we trowel down through the different contexts we are removing the site and it will no longer be in the ground for others to learn from. This is why excavation has to be done in a well-documented way. We need to convert the site from a physical deposit in the ground into records like photographs, maps, and standardized notes. Archaeologists have a responsibility to ensure these records are accurate and informative so others can use the records in the future to continue to learn from the site, even after it has been excavated.
As it is destructive, sometimes the decision is made to not excavate a site and leave it in the ground. This may be because it is important to the local community that the site be left undisturbed or maybe there isn’t sufficient time or funds to do a proper job of the excavation.
One factor considered by the community and the archaeologists when making the decision to excavate Nunalleq has been the coastal erosion. If you’ve explored the blog, you’ve likely read about the increasingly warmer winters in Quinhagak, the loss of permafrost, the resulting soil instability, and the risk of losing the site to the sea with one big storm. This risk is real and so the team is in a bit of a race against nature and time to learn as much about the site as possible before the seemingly inevitable happens.
One tool in efficiently and accurately documenting the excavation at Nunalleq is the total station. It is used to record all sorts of location information, both horizontal and vertical (for example, where artifacts are found within the site, where samples of hair and soil are collected, and the depths of different levels).
There are different ways of recording this information. When I attended my first archaeology field school we were taught to use a theodolite and used measuring tapes, strings, line levels and plumb-bobs to map artifact locations. This was labor-intensive and time consuming. The total station we use at Nunalleq only needs two people; one person holds the prism and the other aims the total station at the prism and then records the artifact’s location in its internal memory.
When an artifact is found through troweling, its location is marked with a small flag for mapping with the total station. As the excavation progresses into the undisturbed house floors, more artifacts are found and very quickly the site turns into a sea of fluttering flags. For this reason, there is usually a designated “total station team” on site.
In the morning, the team sets the total station up on its tripod and levels it over a datum. They program the total station so it “knows” where it is and what direction it’s facing, and then it is ready for a busy day of shooting in points. Once set up, an artifact’s location can be recorded in seconds and at the end of the day it takes only a few minutes to bring all the information into a computer program to make maps of the site.
In our race against nature and time, the total station is a valuable member of the crew. Not only does it free up people and time for excavation, but its high-powered lens can also be used to confirm that bushes moving on the horizon are not bears, watch ships at sea, or check the cleanliness of the archaeologists’ ears from across the site (not recommended).
The artefact of the day created great excitement when Tricia found it in the abandonment layer. It was instantly given the name ‘Venus of Nunalleq’. (Venus figurines are a collective term used for voluptuous women statuettes dating back to the European paleolithic era). Our Venus is made of wood, and is missing a head (but that is not too uncommon among the paleolithic Venuses either). Generally the dolls we find have very anonymous bodies, it is usually the heads that show character, but this body is quite expressive. We also found a pregnant doll earlier this year.